- Learn about an LDR
A Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) is a component whose resistance varies with the light intensity falling on it. A typical LDR is pictured below.
The most common type of LDR has a resistance that falls with an increase in the light intensity falling upon the device (as shown in the image above). The resistance of an LDR may typically have the following resistances:
Characteristics of LDR or photo resistors:
Types of photo resistors and working mechanisms
Based on the materials used, photo resistors can be divided into two types; intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic photo resistors use undoped materials such as silicon or germanium. Photons that fall on the device excite electrons from the valence band to the conduction band, and the result of this process are more free electrons in the material, which can carry current, and therefore less resistance. Extrinsic photo resistors are made of materials doped with impurities, also called dopants. The dopants create a new energy band above the existing valence band, populated by electrons. These electrons need less energy to make the transition to the conduction band thanks to the smaller energy gap. The result is a device sensitive to different wavelengths of light. Regardless, both types will exhibit a decrease in resistance when illuminated. The higher the light intensity, the larger the resistance drop is. Therefore, the resistance of LDRs is an inverse, nonlinear function of light intensity.
The sensitivity of a photo resistor varies with the light wavelength. If the wavelength is outside a certain range, it will not affect the resistance of the device at all. It can be said that the LDR is not sensitive in that light wavelength range. Different materials have different unique spectral response curves of wavelength versus sensitivity. Extrinsic light dependent resistors are generally designed for longer wavelengths of light, with a tendency towards the infrared (IR). When working in the IR range, care must be taken to avoid heat buildup, which could affect measurements by changing the resistance of the device due to thermal effects. The figure shown here represents the spectral response of photoconductive detectors made of different materials, with the operating temperature expressed in K and written in the parentheses.
Light dependent resistors have a lower sensitivity than photo diodes and photo transistors. Photo diodes and photo transistors are true semiconductor devices which use light to control the flow of electrons and holes across PN-junctions, while light dependent resistors are passive components, lacking a PN-junction. If the light intensity is kept constant, the resistance may still vary significantly due to temperature changes, so they are sensitive to temperature changes as well. This property makes LDRs unsuitable for precise light intensity measurements.
Another interesting property of photo resistors is that there is time latency between changes in illumination and changes in resistance. This phenomenon is called the resistance recovery rate. It takes usually about 10 ms for the resistance to drop completely when light is applied after total darkness, while it can take up to 1 second for the resistance to rise back to the starting value after the complete removal of light. For this reason the LDR cannot be used where rapid fluctuations of light are to be recorded or used to actuate control equipment, but this same property is exploited in some other devices, such as audio compressors, where the function of the light dependent resistor is to smooth the response.